Shane Gibbons, Aubrey
Temara& Te Taru White
whare tu i te koraha he kai na te ahi
lone house that stands solitary in the open plains is fodder for an enveloping
a degree, Maori in dealing with the European colonist, stands accused of falling
into the same trap as the 'boiled frog' of the 'Peruvian Indians' who:
',seeing the sails of their Spanish invaders on the horizon put it down
to a freak of the weather and went on about their business having no concept of
sailing ships in their limited experience.
Assuming continuity, they screened out what did not fit and let disaster
in " .1
cogent lesson to be learned is that in looking to the future, Maori must
recognise and identify the forces that will shape the future and the new global
word. Charles Handy argues that as
we head towards the year 2000, change is not what it used to be:
". Changes are different this time: they are discontinuous and not
part of a pattern.
Valli describes this new environment:
“ as a world of permanent whitewater in which we're all roaring down a
wild river, none of us feel like we either understand or control what we're in
the middle of”3
those who realise what type of change is likely and where changes are heading
are better able to use those changes to there own advantage. In the business environment, changes are such that old
paradigms are breaking down and new ones emerging.
Maori need to recognise these changes and adopt the new paradigm.
Naisbitt (1982) and Naisbitt and Aburdene (1991) identified the trends
shaping the 1980's and 1990's
J Naisbett (1982 ). J Naisbett & P. Aburdene (1990)
the most awe-inspiring of all the changes shaping the future relate to the
impending worldwide economic boom and the swiftness with which the world is
becoming a single economy. This new
global economy cannot be understood if it is thought to be merely more and more
growing foreign exchange among 160 countries.
It must be viewed as a world moving from trade among countries to a
single economy: one economy, one market place.
As Naisbitt et al (1990, p.12) point out, that for a global economy to
work, free trade must exists among all nations and as economic considerations
gradually transcend political considerations, CEO's will displace politicians
from their positions of power.
economic boom may be partially explained by the shift from industrial society to
an Information Society. This shift
has resulted largely from developments in telecommunications and the alliance
forged between telecommunications and global economics. The advent of the information society and the advantages of
hi tech/high touch telecommunication, (with the ability to create a single
worldwide information network, able to communicate anything, to anyone,
anywhere) has had (and will continue to have) a staggering effect on business
and the workplace. It also provides
a window of opportunity for Maori. The
implications of the information society for Maori and business generally are
enormous and include;
The need for highly educated and skilled information workers.
Clearly in the information society college pays off in the market place
and the well educated will benefit most. Education
has become a strategic necessity.
Problems associated with how to educate and train people to qualify for
the highly specialised, highly paid and apparent abundance of jobs.
The realisation that countries that invest in education will be the most
competitive and will hold a competitive advantage. (NB.
The USA does not presently have sufficient numbers of educated and
qualified workers to fill the information economy jobs that are available.
All the Asian countries of the Pacific Rim have been investing in
education for several years and are out performing their European and American
The realisation that it is no longer " a mans world" as women
will take up two thirds of the new jobs created in the service information
sector and will play an increasingly important role in all sectors, particularly
in management and leadership positions.
A move away from labour-intensive manufacturing and a move towards
knowledge based and service organisations.
The realisation that without a developed structure or network the vast
amount of data that is generated each day will pass by and opportunities will be
lost. There is a need for
organisations to acquire and process information and to build their knowledge
the industrial era the position of Maori in the labour market was characterised
by the fact that they tended to gravitate toward a narrow range of occupations
which required brawn and not brains, and which were low paid, low skilled and
less secure. This situation will
simply compound in the rapidly developing information society.
Maori youth are not innately more stupid or less educable; they are the
inheritors of a tradition which held that book learning was for a few, the real
life, and real money, should begin as soon as possible and that skills were best
learnt on the job. Handy points out that;
" In Japan, 98% of young people stay on in formal education until
18 years of age.
They are the inheritors of
a different cultural tradition, one that just happens to be
more attuned to the needs of the future”4
message is simple and very clear. Maori
must invest in education but to this end the education system must be seriously
questioned, in terms of how the system is trying to meet Maori needs.
corporations and Maori will not only need to look at and re-engineer their
mechanistic, hierarchical, rigid and overly large structures but they will need
to change their culture, the way they do things. In this regard the key to change is in the mind of the
individual worker. What type of
worker does the environment demand? New
buzz words abound illustrating the type of worker and thinking required.
The situation calls for and progress depends on the “unreasonable
man”, “upside down thinking” and “reframing”.
It also requires the use of such concepts as the inverted donut and
subsidiarity. In this respect Handy
"That discontinuous change requires discontinuous up-side-down
thinking to deal with it even if both thinkers and thoughts appear absurd at
further suggests that the “unreasonable man” is best suited to periods of
discontinuous change because he persists in trying to adapt the world to
himself, whereas the “reasonable man” adapts himself to the world.
Amongst Maori the unreasonable man would find any number of bed-fellows
prepared to advance their "unreasonable" ideas and to promote their
up-side-down thinking. As well as
being educated the new work force must be creative, innovative and totally
committed to customer satisfaction and quality.
The key to success is to understand how best to release the
entrepreneurial genie from the confines of the old industrial bottle.
inevitability of change and the likelihood that several of the trends described
by Naisbett and Aburdene may eventuate, together with the fact that the
workforce itself will comprise a new breed of worker, means that management must
also undergo change. The shift
within organisations will be from management (needed in order to control an
enterprise) to leadership (needed to bring out the best in people and to respond
quickly to change). Clearly the
jobs of people in the information, service, finance, and computer sectors are
not part of an assembly line and can not be managed as though they were.
Naisbitt and Aburdene consider that:
is almost impossible to supervise work. Mental
tasks have replaced mechanical ones. Work is what goes on inside peoples heads,
at desks, on airplanes, in meetings, at lunch "
intelligent workers are best governed by consent and not by command.
Obedience can not be demanded. Rather
a shared understanding or the cultivation of the new business paradigm of
community (Gozd, 1993 & Peck, 1987) is the only way to make things happen.
Transformational leadership is therefore required within organisations
and by Maori. It is a leadership of
ideas and consensus, a leadership that respects people and encourages
self-management and autonomous teams. It
is the leadership that wins commitment by setting an example of: excellence,
being ethical, open, empowering and inspiring.
Leaders must shape and share an organisation’s vision.
It is the vision that gives purpose to work.
The vision must make sense, be within the bounds of possibility and be
adopted by others. The new leaders
must acknowledge and be increasingly prepared to manage the anxieties of change.
Management of change is perhaps the biggest challenge facing
organisational leaders. Employees
must feel safe in learning; they must have a motive, a sense of direction, and
the opportunity to try out new things without fear of punishment.
Paradigms: The Breakdown of the Old, The Emergence of the New.
would have predicted the collapse of communism, the introduction of the free
market, the tearing down of the Berlin wall, the relegation of apartheid to the
annals of political oblivion and so many other phenomenal changes in the 1980's
and the early 1990's. The authors
certainly didn't think that such tumultuous changes would happen in their
lifetimes. But as Michail Gorbachev
"I feel that all mankind is entering a new age, and that the world
is beginning to obey new laws and logic, to which we have yet to adjust
modern Western industrial era paradigm is characterised by its belief in:
The scientific method, unlimited material progress, industrialisation
and short term pragmatic values "6
every human activity is valued in economic terms and economic growth is the
primary measure by which society judges its progress.
The predominance of economic institutions and economic rationality all
but justifies the greed of acquisitive materialism that has become the hallmark
of modern society. Harman and
Horman suggest that the focus on acquisitive materialism leads to the deepest
level problem of all - alienation. People
are alienated from nature, from work, from each other and from themselves.
Maori the communal concept of ownership has prevented or obstructed their full
understanding of the all-consuming desire for acquisitive materialism.
This fundamental underlying value of the capitalistic system is perhaps,
the main reason for the tendency of the Western industrial era paradigm (the old
business paradigm), to create marginal people and marginal cultures, which taken
to the extreme led to chronic poverty, hunger and mal-development. 7
Certainly for Maori, they have long been aware of the tendency for the old
business paradigm to marginalise their culture, hence the repeated calls for
self- determination and attempts to embark on a development path appropriate to
their unique cultural roots. The
passing of the old, materialistic, individualistic, western industrial paradigm
will not be mourned by Maori however, it is essential that they fully understand
the new emerging paradigms of business. Marilyn Ferguson in suggesting that the new emergent
paradigms be based on values and not economics considered that:
"The economic systems of the modern world take sides in the old
argument: individual versus society. When
we are polarised, we are arguing about the wrong issue.
Rather than debating whether capitalism is right in its emphasis on
opportunity for the individual or socialism in its concern for the collective,
we should reframe the question: Is a materialistic society suited to human
needs? Both capitalism and
socialism, as we know them, pivot on material values. They are inadequate
philosophies for the transformed society "8
emergence of the new business paradigms based on values and not economics must
be recognised and the characteristics adopted by Maori.
Marilyn Ferguson provides a summary of the assumptions underlying the old
and new paradigms and is reproduce in Table 2.
transition from the old to the new provides a window of opportunity for all
business but particularly for Maori. Many
business/organisations will no doubt because of the "paradigm effect"
not see the opportunities while others will be suffering from a chronic case of
"paradigm paralysis" and be unable to capitalise.
Given that everybody goes back to zero when the paradigm shifts, Maori
must strive to become "paradigm pioneers" and be at the leading edge
of implementing new rules and values. An
examination of the assumptions underlying the new business paradigms enables us
to identify and list below the main features of the new paradigm.
will need to focus on:
Visioning (both corporate and individual)
Leadership not management
Co-operation, consensus, teamwork, community building
The creative workplace- innovation, entrepreneurial
The learning organisation
Empowerment of workers
Stakeholders not stockholders
OF THE OLD
OF THE NEW
- Emphasis on specialised tasks.
- Sharply defined job descriptions
of the Future Organisation
the predicted megatrends, the turmoil and changes occurring in the business
environment and the new emerging paradigms one may well ask, "How will
firms, indeed how will Maori, organise and operate in the future? "An
examination of the writings of RM Kanter, T Peters and R Waterman, and C Handy
reveal a surprising number of similarities as to their respective visions for
the organisations of the future. These
internationally recognised management consultants, more than any of the other
consultants considered, paint a picture which the authors believe provide a
workable and realistic model for Maori. Before
describing this Maori model Table 3 below briefly examines and contrasts the
main characteristics considered by each of the above-named consultants to be
necessary for future organisations.
OF THE FUTURE ORGANISATION
PETERS & R WATERMAN
- sell off non-core activities
- flatter more responsive less complex, greater focus
- strategic alliances
- service alliances
- opportunistic alliances
- stakeholder alliances
- core workers
- Autonomous Shamrock under umbrella of Federal System
- Federal Centre integrates activities, generates ideas & provides strategy.
- Power devolved not delegated
- Idea, innovation, creative
Peters, Kanter and Handy.
on issues of innovation and entrepreneurship; flat anti hierarchical and
flexible structures; culture and shared values; brains rather than brawn and
treating workers with respect and as assets; there is much common ground.
However it is Handy's three generic type of organisations: The Samrock,
the Federal organisation and the Triple I organisation that appear to be readily
adaptable to the Maori situation.
case study, in our view, identified four factors which we consider to be blocks
on change and which must be removed before Maori will be able to pursue
successfully their vision of self-reliance and self-determination, the
protection and development of their culture and the welfare of their people.
Those blocks may be categorised as structure, leadership, education and
has been noted in the case study that in the search for unity amongst iwi,
traditional tribal autonomy presents the major obstacle and impedes the
development of a national body politic. The
concept of a federation of tribes is not new to Maori however, as Handy points
"Unfortunately, federalism misunderstood can be worse than no
misunderstood becomes inefficient decentralisation, leading to talk of the
headless corporation or the hollow company......... A clear understanding of the
role of the Center is crucial to a properfederalism, but so is an appreciation
of concepts like the inverted donut because structure on its own will not
produce a federalist organisation "
For Maori to unite successfully under the umbrella of a federation, the
role of the federal centre needs to be clearly understood.
Federalism must be distinguished from decentralisation where the centre
delegates tasks to the outlying parts of the organisation while remaining in
Federalism requires the centre's power to be given
to it by the independent autonomous tribes.
The centre does not direct or control but co-ordinates, advises and
attempts to influence. However the
initiative, drive and energy comes from the tribes. The role of the centre requires that it compile and
rationalise the vast amounts of information becoming available in the
information society. It is
essential for the centre to build and protect its knowledge base.
In this respect the federal centre provides a central database employing
"smart people" and smart machines.
For these reasons the development of national or global strategies needs
to be controlled by the federal centre as there is a danger that the strategic
thinking of the tribes will be short term and parochial.
Decisions on how to spend new money (not generated by the assets of the
tribes) and where and when to place new people must also of necessity be
controlled by the centre. Federalism implies therefore that the tribes retain their
autonomy or rangatiratanga leaving the federal centre to pursue the business of
providing a common platform for the integration of the activities of the tribes.
The federal centre will further generate and collate ideas from the
tribes and from within its own knowledge base, turning them into concrete,
achievable strategic objectives. Underlying
the functions of the federal Maori structure is the principle of subsidiarity
which requires that the centre not perform the tasks which can be performed
efficiently by the tribes. The
federal centre together with the federated tribes must
also adopt and incorporate into its operation the principles of the
Shamrock, and Triple Organisations. The
following slides illustrate the basic federal/shamrock structures envisaged. In
this instance citing the Te Arawa confederation of tribes.
The concept of a federation of tribes provides the only means by which
Maori can deal successfully with non-Maori on a pan-tribal basis while at the
same time ensuring that each tribe retains its autonomy and rangatiratanga.
The federal concept also assists in the process of allowing strategic
alliances to be strengthened both internally with other tribes and externally
with non-Maori businesses.
Apart from clearly defining the role of the federal centre, the real key
to success is dependent almost entirely on the following four factors:
incredible advances in telecommunications now make it possible for federated
shamrocks (iwi) to communicate amongst themselves and with the federal centre.
Hui will no longer be weekly affairs requiring long travel and prolonged
discussion. Information will be
available and easily accessible and strategies will be developed in the centre
for iwi consideration. Technology
has the capacity to make big organisations small; it has the capacity to unify
Maori still lag behind in the education field, indications are that increasing
numbers are graduating and acquiring the required skills and experience to staff
the proposed structure. The
challenge for our generation is to establish the structures and to create the
Maori renaissance is timely, will not be denied, and will not go away.
There is a renewed spirit and the realisation that only Maori can help
themselves, as history has shown that the Crown is incapable of improving their
position, such is the nature of the Westminster system.
process of Waitangi Tribunal claims and the settlement of grievances can only
assist in Maori efforts to help themselves.
However more importantly Maori cannot afford to be caught by the
"paradigm effect". Unlike
the boiled frog or the Peruvian Indians’ Maori need to read the current
paradigm shift. The advent of the
information society means everyone starts from zero.
Consequently it is understood that success depends not on the return of
assets and other natural resources, but on the processing of information,
adoption of the new paradigms and a commitment to invest in education. The Japanese have provided the example in this respect having
comparatively few natural resources, they have sought success and competitive
advantage by other means. Rather
than rely on their scant natural resources the Japanese have concentrated on
management systems and processes, adding value to products and services and
capitalising on the vast amounts of information contained in their knowledge
Maharaia Winiata in his article "The Changing Role of the Leader in
"in the first instance traditional Maori leadership roles were
determined according to primogeniture in the male line.
Invariably senior males therefore lead the whanau, hapu and ultimately
the iwi. However heredity although an important factor was required to be
accompanied by other attributes such as: knowledge of whakapapa and tikanga,
wisdom, oratory, prowess in warfare. All
of these attributes needed to be identified by the hapu or iwi members who would
eventually confirm the leader’s position.
Further the underlying basis of leadership was mana, which could be
traced to several sources. Mana ascribed by birth was “mana atua” while mana
derived from occupying certain land areas was “mana whenua”.
“Mana Tangata” came from the support of people and the ability to
engender a spirit of co-operation amongst the community.
Mana also incorporated an element of spirituality and in this respect no
action or decision was taken without first attending to the spiritual dimension. It has been suggested that in this regard Maori leadership
patterns were dualistic rather than simply unitary as the expertise of a tohunga
was more often than not required before the "...mauri" of the event or
occasion was right.
Traditional Maori society evidenced a hierarchy of 4 leadership classes:
Winiata further considered that the ariki, rangatira and tohunga classes had
almost disappeared and that the kaumatua was the most persistent and universally
found class of leader - in traditional society.
In today's society the kaumatua more often than not leads the way
regardless of whether the issue is one of tikanga, politics, economics, business
or commerce. The reality is that
the time honoured tests of leadership no longer exist to the same degree and
more often than not kaumatua are promoted to leadership roles simply because of
age, without having earned it.
question whether leadership is or should be inherited or achieved is worthy of
further discussion. Api Mahuika
do I subscribe to the view that the present leadership is achieved rather than
ascribed, at least certainly not in Ngati Porou.
Here families like Reedy, Dewes, Kaa, Karaka, Kohere, Mahuika and Ngata,
families which belong to the rangatira, have ensured that at least one of its
sons has received the full benefit of Pakeha education because these are the
families from which leadership is expected.
In other words, Pakeha education is another preparation for leadership in
the tribal situation.... This
would suggest that the traditional elements of leadership are still relevant and
view may be contrasted with that of Alan Duff who considers:
"that Maori need new leadership to replace, perhaps educate a tiny open-minded minority of them, the present leaders with their rigid, unbending attitudes, their assumption that leadership is not so much an individual quality as a hereditary one, owed not to merit, nor to qualities of personal strength, fortitude wisdom. But owed always to your place in the male lineage. Your order in the privileged Maori male universe.
We need this present linkup of leaders like the proverbial hole in the head. Maoridom needs to be rid of the tribe-obsessed leadership which inevitably returns to its inward looking self-tribe. Tribe, it is always tribe, or iwi, before Maori. It will never change so long as we continue old tribal practices, with continued adherence to the system of hereditary male leadership. It has to be overturned." 12
common and ever increasing complaint of the Maori Land Court judges relates to
the election of trustees for individual blocks of Maori freehold land.
Trustees are normally elected for the specific purpose of utilising and
developing the land on behalf of the owners.
Inevitably however when trustees are nominated each family (whanau) will
nominate the head or kaumatua of their family.
To reject a nomination or to be defeated in the election, results in loss
of mana therefore all nominations are invariably accepted.
The consequence of this is that in almost every case there are too many
trustees and very few have the necessary qualifications and skills to actually
develop the land for the benefit of all owners.
The tendency to nominate and elect various family kaumatua also means
that the many trustees perceive their role as looking after their family's
interest. Hence vested interests
cloud their judgements and development considerations are of secondary
importance. Similar problems arise
whenever there are elections held for various committees, boards and runangas.
issue raises the problem of whether Maori are best served by the need for the
iwi//hapu to be represented or whether they are best served by ensuring that
their representative is selected on merit despite the fact that he/she may not
be a member of the particular iwi/hapu.
the world of politics, economics, social welfare and business, traditional Maori
leadership may need to be impeached. The
process of impeachment is not uncommon and in this regard history has an
important lesson for Maori. Examples
abound from the Emperor in Japan to the Kaiser in Germany, the Tsar in Russia
and Monarchy in Britain. The claim
to having the "divine right to rule" (in Maori terms the right to rule
based on whakapapa) barely survived the feudal paradigm of the Middle Ages and
perhaps the industrial era paradigm had most to do with this. The lesson of history is very simply that at some stage the
general populous, being dissatisfied and disillusioned with the governance by
the monarch, rebelled and opted for a process of electing persons best suited
for the job of governing. In many
instances, perhaps out of respect, the monarch remained as a symbolic
figurehead. For Maori it would be a
crime of the highest order if in matters of politics, economics and business
etc, traditional leaders were promoted on the basis of whakapapa or heredity, if
they did not also possess the necessary skills. Maori cannot afford to enter the information society with
leaders who do not understand the new paradigms and the dynamics at work in the
new environment of discontinuous change. The
place and role of the traditional leader needs to be clearly defined and the
process established whereby the most capable persons provide the leadership not
only at the federal centre but also in the tribal shamrocks.
of the problem may be solved by maintaining a clear distinction between the
governance and management roles and by clearly defining and separating roles,
functions, and powers. (see Te Arawa model ) There is also a need to determine
clearly the lines of responsibility and incorporate tools of accountability such
as; contracts, strategic and corporate planning documentation, administration
and policy manuals, and deeds of constitution describing the relationship of the
various components each to the other.
concept of the Triple I organisation is based on intelligence, information
and ideas. Organisational
success depends upon a combination of smart people and smart machines.
Handy sees the core workers in both the shamrock and federal
organisations, using their intelligence to analyse the information, to generate
the ideas for new products and services. Ideally
in the structure proposed, the federal centre together with the core workers in
the federated shamrocks of the tribes, should provide a "hotbed of
intellectual discourse". Therefore,
it is imperative that Maori employ the best people to fill the positions in the
proposed structure and invest heavily in education.
the Crown or local bodies, Maori are not able to collect taxes or levy charges
for such things as: rates, fishing licences (quota), mining licences, geothermal
extraction, etc. The anomaly of
course is that the Crown manages to levy such charges on assets they do not own
but which are rightfully and legally owned by Maori. The availability of taxes and rates are the life- source for
government departments and district councils, without them they simply would
cease to exist.
major problem for any Maori organisation (be it hapu, iwi, waaka or the
structure proposed) is finance to support its operations.
For most tribes they have barely sufficient funds to support their own
operations and marae let alone a federal centre requiring smart people and smart
machines. One of the problems with
government initiatives in establishing organisations to represent Maori is that
at the end of the day finance was controlled by the Crown and the continued
existence of the organisation was totally dependent on government policy and the
whim of individual ministers.
need to be financially independent and to have sufficient funds to support their
own structures is a major motivating factor behind many of the tribe's tribunal
claims. In essence the tribes are
saying "we don't need your help, just give us back what rightly and legally
belongs to us and we will help ourselves".
Ministry of Maori Development (Te Puni Kokiri) has replaced the pervious lwi
Transition Agency and the Department of Maori Affairs.
The Ministry's role is restricted to providing policy advice and is not
involved in provision of services in the housing, employment and training and
land development areas, etc. Generally
speaking the Ministry has employed a small core of highly intelligent, educated,
talented and skilled people and is leading the way amongst many
government departments in its use of the latest computer technology and
telecommunications systems. Over
the years the Ministry has compiled an enormous amount of information relating
to almost every facet of Maori life. The
Ministry is deeply involved in formulating strategies and providing advice to
by default the Ministry is performing some of the functions and roles described
earlier for the federal centre.
a major problem relates to communications between the Ministry and iwi and the
ultimate person or entity for whom the policy advice is prepared.
Perhaps Handy best illustrates the problem when considering the role of
the federal centre:
" Subsidiarity means giving away power. No one does that willingly its organisations, yet the federal
organisation will not work unless those in the centre not only have to let go of
some of their power but actually, want to do so, because only then will they
trust the new decision makers to
take the right decisions and only, then will they enable them to make them
can only speculate on what might be achieved if the National Maori Congress was
structure to perform the role of our federal centre and to carry on in the
direction of the Ministry. To do
this the $30 million vote Maori Affairs would need to be redirected to the
National Maori Congress or other duly constituted Commission in perpetuity (or
for a fixed term of years, say 30 years) without any obligation to account to
anyone other than "Iwi Maori". The
funds need to be targeted towards developing structures (capacity building) and
should indulge in a bit of upside down thinking and simply give the money with
no strings attached, and trust the appropriate structure to do the job for its
own beneficiaries. To repeat
Handy's words they should:
"Trust the new decision makers to take the right decisions and only
then will they
enable them to make them
then, the position of Maori in society will improve.
There is tremendous energy, creativity, goodwill and commonality of
purpose in the Maori community. It
only needs to be tapped and coordinated but this requires structure, leadership,
an urgent focus on education and the need for financial dependence on the Crown
to be replaced by accountability to iwi Maori.
1 C. Handy, 1989, The
Unreasonable Man, p-7
2 C. Handy, 1989, The Unreasonable Man, p-5
See readings Leadership Culture and Change Module, The New Paradigm in
4 C. Handy, 1989, The Unreasonable Man, p.29
Michail Gorbachev in Harmann and Hormann article - unreferenced course
text, Leadership culture and Change
6 Michail Gorbachev in Harmann and Hormann article - unreferenced course
text, Leadership culture and Change
Harmann and Hormann article - unreferenced course text, Leadership
culture and Change
8 Unreferenced Article. The
Transformation of Values and Vocation.
MBA course text. Leadership
culture and Change.
C. Handy, 1989, The
Unreasonable Man, p.99
10 Maharaia Winiata - The Changing Role of the Leader in Maori Society,
Api Mahuika - Leadership inherited and Achieved in M. King (ed), Te Ao
Hurihui: Aspects of Maoritanga, p61
Alan Duff - Maori The Crisis and The Challenge, pl 18
C. Handy, 1989, The Unreasonable Man, p.100