“Are there Barriers to Maaori Land Development in North Waikato?

Alex Hopkins, 

He Mihi. 

Huutia te rito o te harakeke, Kei whea te koomako e koo.

Whakatae rangatira, Rere ki uta, rere ki tai.

Ka patae te patae, He aha te mea nui o teenei ao?

Koo te whakautu,

he tangata, he tangata, he tangata.

Tihei Mauri Ora!


Indigenous development of land globally has been traditionally constrained by the dominant sector of society. The focus on the importance of land to indigenous people contrasts with the predominant world view. This research provides a pragmatic approach to asset-development of Maaori land in North Waikato, an area where, because of the fragmented nature of the land, has largely been ignored by the literature. 

The research provides a variation to the current management approach of Maaori land by exploring investment opportunities for their owners. This may ultimately create sustainable solutions to the question of multiple ownership and its purported adverse, cumulative consequences. But multiple-ownership must continue, this research contends, to guarantee a continued link to Papatuaanuku and Rangi-nui-aa-tea for iwi, whanau and hapuu through land ownership. 

A case study model was used based on facility development and designed to compare current and proposed land-uses identified in the research. The purpose of the case study model was to provide insights into the attitudes and feelings of current owners towards their lands revealed in a written survey. While the survey sample size was small, there were sufficient responses to undertake qualitative analyses. The case study carried out in North Waikato drew responses that largely supported the challenges to developing Maaori land identified in the literature. 

The research applied Ricardian economic theory to optimise the utilization and long-term viability of Maaori land in North Waikato for their owners. Within the case study, a feasibility study was undertaken on the land-use option providing the highest economic rent. A mainstream financial institution provided feedback on the study and identified monetary constraints as the major barrier preventing its viability. However, mainstream institutions do not factor Maaori attitudes to land into their lending criteria and have no qualms about forcing mortgagee sales in the event of default of debt by Maaori. This factor is an important consideration for Maaori when entering into mainstream financial contractual agreements. 

While the research highlights alternative land-use opportunities for Maaori land owners in North Waikato, it has widespread applications. Despite the barriers or challenges identified through the decades in the literature, this research contends the compounding effects of multiple ownership and its burden on future generations, demands further study particularly valuing Maaori attitudes. 


Hermes men wallet official outlet online chloe replica christian louboutin replica birkin bags fake Outlet sale birkin bags hermes authentic hermes birkin 55cm hermes bag kris kardashian Christian louboutin shoes sneakers fake outlet store Replica online bags mini best celine cheap louis vuitton belt Fake christian louboutin wedding shoes outlet store hermes belt brown 2015 real chloe bags outlet chloe bags sale Celine fake bags sunglasses outlet store Louis vuitton wallet belt replica outlet real Hermes women the best hermes outlet replica Outlet store heels shoes red bottoms fake Outlet online best women satchel yves saint laurent hermes belts men prices