Leaders Are Made Not Just Born – Planning for
Leaders And Leadership succession
Winiata, Ngäti Raukawa, Ngäti Toarangatira, Te Äti Awa, Ngäti Awa, Ngäti
Whakaue, Kaihautü mö Te Reo / Co-Director of Reo Studies, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa,
Ötaki in association with
Turoa Kiniwe Royal
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano – Generation 2000 A Case
task today is to draw on the experiences of the tribal development plan of a
Confederation of iwi, namely Te Äti Awa, Ngäti Raukawa and Ngäti Toarangatira
(A.R.T.) and discuss this plan in terms of the title of this presentation –
Leaders are made, not just born.
is Part II of a co-presentation with Turoa Royal and focuses on the tribal
development plan called ‘Whakatupuranga Rua Mano’ – Generation 2000 (WRM)
that was implemented in 1975 with a 25-year horizon.
presentation includes the history of A.R.T., the key players in the facilitation
and coordination of WRM, activities of WRM, including the establishment of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa
in Ötaki, and an analysis of its success in terms of survival.
The final section describes a view on the title of this presentation
within the context of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.
A Brief Account of History:
The three iwi are
closely linked by whakapapa and have undertaken many joint ventures over the
last two centuries. Ngati
Toarangatira originally came from Käwhia; Ngati Raukawa from Maungatautari and
Te Äti Awa from the Taranaki region. For
a myriad of reasons, the iwi left their homelands in the early 1800’s and
settled on the west side of the Tararua Ranges from approximately Palmerston
North to Nelson. Today’s
descendants describe this area as –
‘Mai i Waitapu ki
Rangataua, mai i Mïria te Kakara ki Whitireia,
whakawhiti atu i te
moana o Raukawa ki Wairau, ki Whakatü’
Te Rauparaha of Ngati
Toarangatira, Te Whatanui and Te Ahukaramü of Ngati Raukawa and Te Reretäwhangawhanga
and other chiefs of Te Äti Awa led their iwi to this area.
The numerous migrations passed through Taranaki, particularly Ngati
Mutunga territory, close relatives of Ngati Toarangatira.
Some of them were enticed to migrate south with Ngati Toarangatira and
Ngati Raukawa and then some continued further south and also on to
Confederation includes Ngati Raukawa who settled from the Rangitïkei River to
the Kukutauaki stream near Waikanae, Te Äti Awa mainly in Waikanae & Käpiti
and Ngati Toarangatira from Käpiti to Porirua and Nelson. Major joint ventures
between A.R.T. over the last two centuries have reaffirmed the whakapapa ties
among the iwi and contributed to their unity as a Confederation of iwi.
This background has
been influential in the acceptance, engagement and fruition of Whakatupuranga
Rua Mano. The joint ventures the
Confederation have been involved with include the following:
Joint Ventures of The Confederation:
– 1822 Migration
from Käwhia, Maungatautari, Taranaki
– 1851 Building
and establishment of Rangiätea Church, Ötaki
Ötaki Mäori Racing Club
Ötaki Mäori Boys College
Raukawa Marae, Ötaki – a Whare Rünanga for the Confederation
Raukawa Marae Trustees established under the Mäori Land
Otaki & Porirua Trusts Board
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano
Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki
Rangiätea Church was destroyed by fire in October
1995 and the Confederation is committed to erecting a replica of the original
church. Architectural plans have
been completed; the artwork is on the way.
The Ötaki Mäori Racing Club Course is leased for 99
years to a consortium in Horowhenua. Renegotiation
of the lease is approximately 3 generations away.
The Confederation has an amicable relationship with the lessee.
The Ötaki Mäori Boys College building became the
original site of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki.
The buildings have been restored.
Raukawa Marae is very active with hui of the
Confederation and the community.
Raukawa Marae Trustees continue to act as a
representative body of the Confederation. All
of the 69 Trustees are from the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano was reaffirmed in 1997 at a
hui of the Confederation of A.R.T. called to consider the future.
Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki has 1,500 students.
Of this group, 40% are from the Confederation.
The new marae based studies programme that started last year has 350
students from Whanganui, Whangaehu, Taihape, Porangahau, Arapuni and six marae
of the Confederation.
previous 200 years have formed a strong foundation for hapü and iwi of the
Confederation to work and grow together. The
joint ventures have been critical in our development and retention as a people.
Future aspirations and the fruition of these will be the greater because
of our history as a Confederation.
Raukawa Marae Trustees:
Mäori Land Court created the Raukawa Marae Trustees in 1936.
This group has 69 Trustees representative of the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.
The Trustees extended their vision to 25 years when they established an
experimental programme of tribal development called Whakatupuranga Rua Mano with
a primary goal of assisting the iwi and hapü to prepare for the twenty-first
century. Over a period of 3 to 4 years, the objectives and principles were
defined and refined as the Confederation learned more about themselves in
relation to their social, educational, cultural, economic and political
realities around them.
Raukawa Trustees were the initiators of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.
While without a register of members, the Trustees estimated that there
were about 40,000 descendants, 21 iwi and hapü associated with the 19 marae.
This group met monthly and a standing agenda item was the WRM report.
Typically the item led to discussion on planning and facilitating
activities to prepare the Confederation educationally, culturally, politically
and economically for the 21st century.
were many well-respected kaumätua and pakeke whose action and behaviour were
examples of dedication, commitment and generosity. A strong core of people, who were key in implementing WRM,
facilitated its activities and encouraged others to participate.
Due to their performance, the hapü and iwi responded by supporting and
uplifting the kaupapa. These people who demonstrated these qualities were key to
the manifestation of the kaupapa within the people.
The people wanted to be a part of the kaupapa just as much as those who
were initiating the activities. It
could be said also that the hapü and iwi were inspired to express the qualities
that were displayed by this core of people.
The hapü and iwi determined their contribution and involvement in WRM.
poor educational accomplishments among the Confederation in comparison to the
rest of the population were a matter of concern to the Trustees to close the
gap. The Raukawa Trustees often
likened the scenario to two cars travelling in the same direction but at
different speeds. Both cars make
progress but the gap between them widens. The
car in the front represented the rest of the population and the car at the back
represented their own tamariki and mokopuna.
This situation became the impetus to create better opportunities for
their whanau. Any educational
improvement would be a welcomed achievement.
Their own education in Äti Awa-tanga, Raukawa-tanga and
Toarangatira-tanga was important. The
rejuvenation of the 19 marae and development of members of the hapü and iwi to
undertake the formal roles on the marae was also a crucial area to expend energy
in. The activities of
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano were geared around these aspirations.
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano:
development plan had 3 Missions – Päkehä, A.R.T. and Education.
We are all familiar with Mäori Mission i.e. Päkehä people telling Mäori
people what is good for us. Päkehä
Mission is Mäori people telling Päkehä what is good for them.
Raukawa Trustees hosted hui for Päkehä people to convince them that;
The Mäori language is a national treasure and the
gateway to discovery and re-discovery of Mäori culture.
Mäori and Päkehä need to commit to its survival;
Aspects of Mäori culture such as whanaungatanga,
tangihanga and speaking Mäori language would be of great value to the nation;
The promotion of Mäori institutions must be
encouraged for Mäori development and as a basis for training both Mäori and Päkehä
Decisions made by Päkehä for the nation must
encourage and promote Mäori language and institutions for Mäori people even
though Päkehä may reject things Mäori as having little value for them.
Mission was exhausting for the Trustees. The
output didn’t meet their inputs. This lack of productivity did not wane their
enthusiasm for Whakatupuranga Rua Mano. Many could have viewed this situation as a lack of success,
others as a task too great for the Trustees.
Nonetheless, the Trustees were determined to persevere and kept the ball
rolling. They were exemplars of
dedication and unwavering in their pursuit. By the early 1980s the Trustees
re-directed their energies into the other 2 Missions.
Äti Awa-tanga, Raukawa-tanga, Toarangatira-tanga Mission:
Trustees shaped four Principles that related to their mission in A.R.T.-tanga or
discovering, re-discovering and expanding knowledge about themselves.
Existing knowledge and beliefs needed to be identified and discussed then
worked into a teaching and learning environment.
Kaumätua and pakeke from within the Confederation gave of their time,
energy and generosity to foster the development of the people.
four Principles that maintained their focus were:
The people are our wealth; to develop and retain
The Mäori language is a taonga; to halt its decline
The marae is our principal home; maintain and respect
principles were central to the survival of the Confederation.
such as ‘Young Peoples’ hui’ that started in 1976 continue today.
There have been 60 hui since 1976. ‘Total
immersion hui’ from 1979 onwards were major contributions to these principles.
So is Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa and its educational programmes.
Raukawa Trustees in association with the Ötaki and Porirua Trusts Board
facilitated these events. The
Trustees, kaumätua and pakeke spent many weekends, weekdays and evenings
planning, organising and delivering activities to advance the four principles.
Other people such as Mäori Marsden and Hiko Höhepa from outside the
Confederation also gave of their time and energy.
Mission has been the most actively engaged by far, and has produced the most
benefits for the Confederation. It
has rejuvenated the people. There
is a lot of activity, sharing and generosity amongst the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.
1975, the Confederation had no one under the age of 30 who could converse in te
reo Mäori. Today, there are
approximately 700-800 descendants under the age of 30 that are able to make
themselves understood in Mäori and they are able to understand the language.
1975 we had 19 marae. Now there are
25 active marae of the Confederation and rejuvenation constantly occurring among
the hapü and iwi. The hapü and
iwi were given new life and purpose. They
wanted to be a part of the kaupapa. The
attitudes and actions of several key kaumätua and pakeke were instrumental in
the engagement of the hapü and iwi. Nothing
else would have transformed the status of the hapü and iwi other than
themselves, which probably would have been based on them observing the work of
others and the desire to participate and help out.
principles were in the minds of the Trustees and in turn began to shape and/or
re-shape their views and opinions. There
were no pamphlets, apparel, propaganda or neon signs promoting these four
principles or Whakatupuranga Rua Mano. WRM always appeared on the agenda of Trustees meetings and
that’s probably the main source of writings about WRM. It was centrally conceived, but whänau, hapü and iwi were
the ‘doers’. Funding wasn’t
an issue. Koha and small grants
from here and there made everything tick like clockwork.
determination and commitment of our people to this Mission has improved our
chances of survival as a Confederation. We
are in a better situation now than in 1975. However, there is so much more to do. The risk of decline and extinction still linger close by.
final Mission – Education, emphasised the need to raise the scholarly
aspirations of the tamariki and mokopuna of the Confederation. Paying attention to learning and scholarly achievement,
particularly but not exclusively, for people of the Confederation.
strategy employed by the Trustees was to identify professions and careers and
set goals for the Confederation to achieve.
No. at 1975
10 by 1985; 20 by 1990
5 by 1985;
10 by 1990
5 by 1990;
10 by 2000
5 by 1990;
10 by 2000
5 by 1990;
10 by 2000
High School Teaching
15 by 1985; 30 by 1990
10 by 1990; 20 by 2000
10 by 1990; 20 by 2000
10 by 1985; 20 by 1990
5 by 1985;
10 by 1990
5 by 1990;
10 by 2000
was hoped that the rangatahi would recognise the urgency of these goals and set
out to make their contribution. The
targets were guidelines for achievement but the main incentive was to affect
behaviour by making the rangatahi think about what could be their contribution
emergence of Te Wänanga o Raukawa at Ötaki in 1981 provided new study options
for the Confederation. Te Wänanga
o Raukawa offers Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Masters programmes.
A PhD programme will be offered in 2002.
The range of opportunities of study has been increased and quality of
3 Missions have required a lot of dedication, determination, commitment and
energy. The initiative came from
firstly, the Raukawa Trustees. Secondly,
from a core group of individuals who were totally committed to WRM.
They weathered the storms, bore the brunt of frustrations but did not
deviate from the kaupapa. Thirdly,
whänau, hapü and iwi led themselves further to prepare their own destiny.
terms of the four principles, the hapü and iwi have progressed in te reo Mäori,
marae maintenance and respect, the development and retention of the people and
independence or self-governance. Te
Wänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki is a significant expression of self-determination.
Despite these successes and achievements, to say that the Confederation
is ‘out of the woods’ and surviving well would be illusory.
last 25 years have created a better quality of life, but what of the next
millennium? Will we still be
around? Ko wai ka hua, ko wai ka
tohu? Who will know? We must plan our future.
In considering future planning, we ought to examine what has occurred
over the last 25 years. Back to the
A Model For Success:
assessing the performance of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, a model for success will
be used that was part of a Master of Mätauranga Mäori thesis by Pakake Winiata
in 1997. The model was produced as
a result of examining successful Mäori events and activities such as Te Mäori,
Te Aurere, Waka hourua, Waka 1990 Celebrations and Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.
What were the determinants of success in these events?
The model for success identifies six determinants:
Ka uru ngä wähanga katoa o te iwi hei whakapümau i
section of the iwi were involved in retaining its mana
Ka huraina, ka whakapümautia, ka whakawhänuitia te Mätauranga
discovered, restored and extended Mäori knowledge
Ka whakapakaritia te hunga rangatahi
were involved, strengthened and gained a lot of knowledge
He oranga wairua tö te kaupapa mö te iwi
kaupapa was spiritually uplifting for the iwi.
Oranga wairua was important
He Kaihautü tö te kaupapa e kaha ana ki te
whakatutuki i ngä mahi
of the kaupapa were determined for the kaupapa to be successful
Ka tautokona te kaupapa e ngä kai-whaipütea
from National and International bodies
respect to Te Mäori, Te Aurere, Waka 1990 Celebrations and Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa,
these six determinants were identified. The
four events were spectacular and drew Mäori and non-Mäori together, young and
old. The model for success predicts
that if these determinants are present in kaupapa Mäori events, the event will
be successful. Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has all of these determinants.
All six determinants must be identified in a kaupapa Mäori.
A score of 4 out of 6 will not produce the same success as 6 out of 6. The analysis is as follows:
Determinants of the Model for Success –Analysis
The activities of WRM included tamariki, rangatahi,
pakeke, kaumätua and even non-Mäori.
reo Mäori is central to the activities of WRM and degree programmes of TWoR.
This understanding in te reo Mäori, discovered, re-discovered and
advanced our knowledge of our values and practices.
The beneficiaries of the activities of WRM were the
rangatahi. After the initial dozen
hui, rangatahi designed, called, directed and reported on hui.
Learning and speaking te reo Mäori was spiritually
uplifting. Knowing how to speak Mäori
is a special joy that is felt deeply in our wairua. Understanding our values and practices has a similar feeling
beyond intellectual stimulation.
The Raukawa Trustees facilitated the kaupapa of WRM.
The activities of WRM were supported by koha.
In addition, as an offspring of WRM, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa is indebted to
voluntary presenters who gave of their time without cost to TWoR.
Either their workplace sponsored them or they gave of their time and
expertise without charge.
is not difficult to determine that the model of success is apparent in
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano activities and in its offspring, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.
What does this mean? The
success of WRM must be meaningful too. It
has contributed towards the survival of the Confederation.
How do we measure this? What
are the variables of survival? Let
us turn to another model that can answer these questions.
Indicators of Hapu or Iwi Health and Well-being:
Confederation will survive if its health and well-being is being maintained
and/or increased. An article by
Whatarangi Winiata called ‘Hapu and Iwi Resources and their Quantification’
provides a response to the questions above.
In summary, the article describes 16 indicators that define and measure
the health and well-being of hapü and iwi.
These are categorised into Human and Physical resources:
The number of active members of the hapü or iwi
The number of members who have an extensive knowledge of the whakapapa of
the hapü or iwi and can produce it instantaneously
The depth and strength of wairuatanga of the hapü and iwi
The depth and strength of the whanaungatanga within the hapü and iwi
The ability of the hapü or iwi to explain and defend their kawa and
The strength of the reo within the hapü or iwi
The number of active and effective kaumätua within the hapü or iwi
The state of health of hapü or iwi members
The level of educational achievements of hapü or iwi members
The breadth, depth and general state of the ‘books’ or manuscripts of
hapü or iwi
The condition of marae facilities of the hapü or iwi
The number and significance of taonga owned and controlled by the hapü
The amount of land owned collectively by the hapü or iwi
The size and stocks of hapü or iwi fisheries
The size and state of the financial assets of the hapü or iwi
The value of any radio spectrum parts owned or vested in the hapü or iwi
confirming these measurements and returning to the questions stated above, if we
align the activities of WRM to these variables, how would it size up and be
measured in terms of its contribution to the survival of the Confederation?
In brief, WRM scores fairly well. The
activities of WRM have contributed to most of these variables.
example, the restoration or renovation of 95% of marae of the Confederation
scores well against variables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11.
The ‘Young People’s hui’ and ‘Total Immersion hui’ where te reo
Mäori and A.R.T.-tanga were taught and learnt scores well against variables 1,
3, 4, 6, 7 and 9. The establishment of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa and the required
degree prescriptions of te reo Mäori and Iwi and Hapü studies contributes to
variables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10.
a further critical aspect is ‘favourable’ comments by other hapü and other
iwi. If our activities did not
attract favourable comment, this would not maintain or improve the health and
well being of the hapü and iwi as measured above. Actions that are inconsistent
with generosity only attract negative comments that diminish mana.
The health and well-being of hapü and iwi is better maintained and
increased if their actions are mana-enhancing of other hapü and iwi.
Generosity or manaakitanga is critical to this equation of health and
well-being of hapü and iwi.
Rua Mano and its activities have been successful and have made a significant
contribution to the health and well being of the hapü and iwi and to their
Are Made Not Just Born:
the presentation of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano and its activities; a model for
success and indicators of hapü and iwi health and well-being, it would be
appropriate to discuss the topic in which my Uncle Turoa Royal and I were
invited to present.
reference to WRM was made when we were approached to present on this kaupapa.
This part of the request has been fulfilled.
The second part is a bit more elusive; discussing WRM in terms of the
topic ‘Leaders are made not just born’. Without a doubt, we are both
privileged to be a part of this conference and acknowledge the contribution that
the tribal development plan Whakatupuranga Rua Mano might present to Conference
concept of ‘leader’ is limited. This
can be illustrated by comparing the concept of ‘leader’ with the attributes
of ‘rangatira’. Consider these
statements about rangatiratanga attributed to Bishop Manuhuia Bennett.
Te kai a te rangatira, he korero
food of a rangatira is talk
Te tohu o te rangatira, he manaaki
sign of a rangatira is generosity
Te mahi a te rangatira, he whakatira i te iwi
work of a rangatira is to unite the people
these three defining characteristics of a rangatira, the notion of ‘leader’,
someone who has followers, is reflected in the third of these statements.
The other two statements about rangatiratanga are not implied in the use
of the word ‘leader’. The term
‘leader’ may be be-fitting of a Päkehä community, but based on our own Mäori
knowledge base, it would not be appropriate for a Mäori community.
There’s more to it than just leading a people.
other two statements about generosity and commitment have been demonstrated in
rangatira from centuries back and are central to moving Mäori in a particular
direction. The term ‘leader’ is
deficient. Our knowledge base
suggests ‘rangatira’ to be more appropriate. Whakatupuranga Rua Mano was
little more than a vision and sub visions.
Those who gave effect to the vision displayed the characteristics of
rangatira that are listed above. They:
Talked about what they wanted to do
Did things that reflected a concern for the people of
the Confederation while being accepting of the presence of others
Emphasised the unity of the A.R.T. Confederation and
they acted in ways that were mana enhancing of each other
is the hope of those who have been associated with WRM that current and future
generations will draw insights and understanding from the process of development
through the application of the characteristics of rangatiratanga.
Among these characteristics is the more limited concept of
‘leadership’, necessary but not sufficient in itself to explain the
development of communities. Accordingly,
a more revealing statement is that ‘rangatira are made, not just born’.
It is hoped that Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has contributed to the ranks of
rangatira within the Confederation of Äti Awa, Raukawa and Toarangatira.
I may have demonstrated that WRM has been successful for the Confederation in
terms of our health and well-being and survival, it may also suggest that in
reference to those ‘scores’ against the determinants & variables, that
the Confederation does have people, as a result of WRM activities, that could be
rangatira for the whänau, hapü and iwi. That
is up to the people to decide.
Rua Mano is about the Confederation, for the Confederation and by the
Confederation. The Raukawa Trustees
have facilitated the activities of WRM. Whänau,
hapü and iwi have enjoyed the rejuvenation of A.R.T.-tanga, te reo Mäori,
restored or renovated marae facilities, educational achievements and self
governance as in Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.
The survival of the Confederation may be based on its continued
contribution to the 16 variables of health and well-being; undertaking
successful kaupapa Mäori; extending generosity; enhancing the mana of other hapü
and iwi and living according to our values, beliefs and practices.
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has been a strong foundation for the Confederation.
‘E kore au e ngaro; he käkano
i ruia mai i Rangiätea
I will not be lost; I am a seed sown from Rangiätea’
Te Ahukaramü Charles (ed.)
Käti au i konei: He Kohikohinga i ngä Waiata
a Ngäti Toarangatira, a Ngäti Raukawa.
Publishers, Wellington 1991.
He Hauminga Tängata.
Te Whakairo i Tëtehi Tauira Whakaora i te Iwi.He tuhinga hei
whakatutuki i ngä tikanga o te tohu ‘Master of Mätauranga Mäori’.
Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki 1997.
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.He
tuhinga hei whakatutuki i ngä
o te tohu ‘Master of Mätauranga Mäori’.
Unpublished thesis. Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki 2000.
Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, Generation
An Experiment in Tribal Development.
Zealand Planning Council 1978.
‘Hapu and Iwi Resources and Their
the Report of the Royal Commission on Social Policy Volume III, Part Two.
Government Print, Wellington 1988.
‘Some Thoughts on a Theory of Managing Mana-a-Hapü
and Mana-a-Iwi Relationships’April 2000.